Diabetes is a complex disease that manifests itself as increased urine production and excessive thirst. The term "diabetes" derives from the Greek word "dia-baino", which means "to pass through". This disease has become a major public health concern worldwide.
Diabetes mellitus is one of two forms of diabetes. It is caused by an abnormality in the synthesis or action of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels in the body. There are several forms of diabetes mellitus, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and other forms related to other causes.
Diabetes insipidus is the other form of diabetes, caused by an abnormality in the secretion or recognition of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone regulates the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys and when its action is impaired, it can cause excessive urine production and increased thirst.
It is important to understand that each form of diabetes is classified according to its mechanisms. The different types of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus have similar symptoms, but different causes. In addition, treatment may vary depending on the type of diabetes.
Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires long-term management. It is crucial for people with diabetes to follow a healthy diet, regular physical activity, control of blood sugar levels and take medication as prescribed by their physician. Ongoing monitoring and proper care can help patients with diabetes lead healthy, active lives.
Definition and Meaning
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot properly regulate the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This may be due to insufficient production of insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar, or to insulin resistance. Symptoms of diabetes include excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, fatigue, recurrent infections and slow wound healing. Diabetes can lead to long-term complications, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, vision problems and blood flow problems. Treatment for diabetes usually involves a healthy diet, regular exercise, medications such as insulin, and regular medical follow-up to monitor blood sugar levels and prevent complications.
Diabetes mellitus, which is the most common, is related to an abnormality in the synthesis or action of insulin, secreted by the pancreas. It is characterized by the presence of glucose in the urine (glycosuria). There are several forms of diabetes mellitus, such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and some forms related to other causes such as chronic pancreatitis or prolonged use of glucocorticoids.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, resulting in a complete lack of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes are therefore dependent on injected insulin to regulate their blood glucose levels. This type of diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, but can occur at any age.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the pancreas still produces insulin, but the body has become resistant to its action. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to compensate for this resistance, but this can lead to a depletion of the insulin-producing cells. Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed in adults and is often associated with risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity and family history of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs in some pregnant women. It is characterized by a temporary increase in blood sugar levels that develops or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is caused by hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, which can make the body less sensitive to insulin. This can cause the pancreas to produce more insulin to compensate for this insulin resistance.
Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, but it can also be diagnosed earlier or later in pregnancy. Women at risk for developing gestational diabetes are those who have a family history of diabetes, are overweight before pregnancy, have had a child weighing more than 9 kg, or have had previous gestational diabetes.
Gestational diabetes can lead to complications for the mother and baby, such as:
- premature deliveries,
- macrosomia (large, heavy babies),
- breathing problems,
- high blood sugar levels in the newborn,
- an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the mother after pregnancy.
Women who have gestational diabetes should follow a healthy diet, exercise regularly and take medication if needed to keep blood sugar levels safe for themselves and their babies.
Diabetes insipidus, which is rarer, is related to an abnormality in the secretion or recognition of antidiuretic hormone. It is characterized by the absence of glucose in the urine (glycosuria). There are two forms of diabetes insipidus:
- central diabetes,
- peripheral diabetes.
Central diabetes is due to a weakness in the synthesis of antidiuretic hormone by the pituitary gland, which may be secondary to a tumor or trauma.
Peripheral diabetes is due to poor sensitivity of the kidney to antidiuretic hormone, which may be secondary to salt intake or congenital in origin.
Diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder that requires medical management and regular monitoring to prevent serious complications such as:
- heart disease,
- renal failure,
- lower limb amputations.
It is important to understand the different forms of diabetes to better understand the causes and possible treatments.